On ultrahigh temperature crustal metamorphism:Phase equilibria,trace element thermometry,bulk composition,heat sources,timescales and tectonic settings

Geoscience Frontiers  2015年03期
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Ultrahigh temperature(UHT) metamorphism is the most thermally extreme form of regional crustal metamorphism,with temperatures exceeding 900℃.UHT crustal metamorphism is recognised in more than 50 localities globally in the metaniorphic rock record and is accepted as ’normal’ in the spectrum of regional crustal processes.UHT metamorphism is typically identified on the basis of diagnostic mineral assemblages such as sapphirine+ quartz,orthopyroxene + sillimanite ± quartz and osumilite in Mg-AIrich rock compositions,now usually coupled with pseudosection-based thermobarometry using internally-consistent thermodynamic data sets and/or Al-in-Orthopyroxene and ternary feldspar thermobarometry.Significant progress in the understanding of regional UHT metamorphism in recent years includes:(1) development of a ferric iron activity-composition thermodynamic model for sapphirine,allowing phase diagram calculations for oxidised rock compositions:(2) quantification of UHT conditions via trace element thermometry,with Zr-in-rutile more commonly recording higher temperatures than Ti-in-zircon.Rutile is likely to be stable at peak UHT conditions whereas zircon may only grow as UHT rocks are cooling.In addition,the extent to which Zr diffuses out of rutile is controlled by chemical communication with zircon;(3) more fully recognising and utilising temperature-dependent thermal properties of the crust,and the possible range of heat sources causing metamorphism in geodynamic modelling studies:(4) recognising that crust partially melted either in a previous event or earlier in a long-duration event has greater capacity than fertile,unmelted crust to achieve UHT conditions due to the heat energy consumed by partial melting reactions:(5) more strongly linking U-Pb geochronological data from zircon and monazite to P-T points or path segments through using Y + REE partitioning between accessory and major phases,as well as phase diagrams incorporating Zr and REE;and(6)improved insight into the settings and factors responsible for UHT metamorphism via geodynamic forward models.These models suggest that regional UHT metamorphism is,principally,geodynamically related to subduction,coupled with elevated crustal radiogenic heat generation rates.